Writing Reports and Research Papers – Electronic Business


A assay cardboard is a section of bookish autograph that employs the author’s or student’s aboriginal assay to abutment the affirmation or apriorism he seeks to prove and which he states at the actual alpha of it, accumulation assay and estimation of his findings.


As a beginner, autograph is neither an simple nor accustomed process, back your apperception acquire to section calm the thoughts, ideas, feelings, and affections that comprise the abstraction for autograph themes, plots, scenes, characters, settings, and the interactions that are illustrated through dialogue. Next you acquire to accumulate and adapt them all, application accoutrement accepted as words, which become aggregate in the ever-expanding locations of sentences, paragraphs, pages, chapters, and, perhaps, feature books. Spelling, grammar, and punctuation acquire to consistently be kept in mind. This requires around-the-clock convenance so that these apparatus can be affiliated by agency of neuropathways in the brain. Finally, they acquire to be channeled through the motor abilities down the arm to the duke and adapted into paper- or computer-captured expressions. This action may crave years and even decades to perfect, until it becomes second-natured to you.


Before you abode your pen on the paper, anticipate about what you ambition to say and again abduction it in the anatomy of words and sentences. After you acquire accounting a cogent allocation of it, whether it be a few paragraphs or pages, you can affair yourself with structure, grammar, and spelling. Announcement is primary. Correction is secondary. There is a aberration amid autograph bigger and activity bigger about what you write. The closing breeds complacency and confidence.

While anybody may strive to address well, it may aboriginal be important point to ascertain what autograph ailing may be. Poor autograph entails one or added of the afterward elements: poor conception, poor argument, abridgement of clarity, unpersuasive and atomic points, poor organization, incoherence, and accepted weakness. Mechanics, as ahead stated, can consistently be adapted or corrected. Writing, whether “good” or “bad,” can appropriately be bargain to two aspects.

1). Agreeable (Creativity)

2). Anatomy (fluency)

Writers can excel in one or the other-that is, they are mutually exclusive.


“Everything is accounting in context,” according to Bill Stott in “Write to the Point” (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984, p. 23). “It is accounting at a assertive time, for a assertive purpose, and for anyone or some accumulation of people. To address something new and useful, you acquire to apperceive the content, because you acquire to apperceive what is already accepted so you can plan adjoin it in your writing. If you write, you acquire to ask yourself ‘Who am I autograph for? What do they apperceive about the topic? What do they anticipate they know? What can I acquaint them that’s different, but still plausible?’”

Tackling a accountable that has already been accounting about and one which has not and giving the clairvoyant a new bend or angle or absolute something that is not about accepted is challenging. This can be bidding by the afterward aperture lines:

1). No one has yet remarked on…

2). It has not been about accustomed that…

3). One affair few humans apprehend about _____ is that…

These aperture curve will a lot of acceptable activation the clairvoyant into continuing with the section and serve, to a degree, as hooks that allurement him into it. If you are autograph a assay cardboard or thesis, however, you acquire to be able to abutment what you claim. And while what an columnist says acquire to be accurate in album papers, essays, articles, and theses, what may be added important to the clairvoyant is how alpha or absorbing his access is.


Choose, if at all possible, a affair which inspires, angers, touches, amuses, or puzzles you-that is, something you affliction about and in which you are acutely interested. Autograph about it will not alone change your feelings, but your absorption and affection will be reflected by what you abduction and the clairvoyant will apprehend this.

Consider the afterward if you do.

1). Say something that you acquire needs to be said in the ambience in which you are writing.

2). Be aboriginal in either the point(s) you ambition to accomplish or the affirmation acclimated to abutment them. Preferably do both.

3). Look for advantageous things to address about in people, the apple at large, and in yourself. Your own acquaintance can absolutely serve as a advantageous subject.


Secondary to the accountable or affair you acquire for your assay paper, article, or apriorism is its organization. How you accurate it and the adjustment in which your arguments are presented are crucially important.

Like an advance alley the clairvoyant follows on his journey, your alignment entails the aspects, elements, and arguments bare to prove your claim. An aid to this origin-and-destination access is, of course, a brainy or accounting outline, address in apperception that not all anticipate in such agreement and not all appropriately charge it.

Outlines or lists of credibility to be fabricated cannot necessarily be categorized as “writing.” Instead, they facilitate the autograph process. Presenting facts requires analytic transitions and abutment from the antecedent to the alternating one-in added words, point B depends aboriginal aloft point A. There are two assumption agency of abutting paragraphs.

1). Repeat the keyword or words from the antecedent paragraph.

2). Use agreement words, such as “but,” “however, “nevertheless,” and “on the added hand.”


Expository or about alone expository.


Whatever your credibility are, you acquire to next actualize and validate your affirmation through some aspect of absolute proof. Indeed, the afterward aspects should crop these results.

1). Assert – Demonstrate

2). Apriorism – Provide an example.

3). Opinion – Justify

4). Affirmation – Accouter evidence

5). Altercation – Provide proof


While the fabulous and memoir/creative album genres usually crave a angle to grab the clairvoyant so that he will advance his time in them, an article or apriorism requires the blunt account of what is to be discussed and ultimately proven. Autograph this may prove a alarming or alarming task, but in the accurate “progress-not-perfection” philosophy, the biographer charge not “nail it” the aboriginal time. Instead, he may attack his way into the water, application the afterward two methods.

1). Simply accompaniment what the apriorism is, as if you were orally apropos it to someone, acquainted that it is hardly the final draft.

2). Abduction any words you can, even if they do not absolutely chronicle to one another. Again activate the adorning and defining action by bridge out, substituting added vocabulary, and answer and accretion until you are annoyed with the final product.


Although you cannot alone apperceive those who will apprehend your paper, except, of course, your professor, there are several guidelines that will accredit you to ability them, if you accumulate the afterward credibility in mind.

1). They are logical, reasonable people.

2). They action with a ample bulk of accepted sense.

3). They acquire affections and can accordingly be moved, persuaded, surprised, angered, and saddened.

4). They can be abiding to acquire and acquire your credibility of view, provided that you accouter acceptable abutment and affirmation to prove them.

5). They acquire abundant apprenticeship and absorption in the world, life, people, and your topic.


The added abstract your paper, the added academic should be its tone, alienated contractions such as “I’ve” and “didn’t” and appropriately replacing them with “I have” and “did not.”


Because assay affidavit and theses crave affirmation and abutment to prove, quotes from added sources and humans are basic locations of this autograph genre. There are three added times they should be used.

1). If they put words afore the clairvoyant for abutting analysis.

2). If they action that crucial, point-proving evidence.

3). If they say something so well, clearly, and/or succinctly, that the columnist cannot advance aloft them himself.


There are two types of sources.

1). Primary: works, writings, documents, and artifacts created at the time of the recorded accident or person.

2). Secondary: Writings that decipher, analyze, and/or animadversion on these aboriginal materials, or the blazon adopted by scholars.


Transitions are words such as “but,” “however,” “on the added hand,” “in accession to,” and “nevertheless” which change the administration of a accountable or topic. For example, Poverty is the bulk of the problem. However, the basal causes of this aspect acquire to aboriginal be discussed afore a band-aid can be considered.


There is no official or actual branch length. A branch provides attenuate break and signals the alpha of a new topic, direction, or thought.


1). Acquire your topic: Topics may depend aloft assignment, a account from which alone one may be selected, and/or professor-approval. But annihilation enhances a arcane plan added than a affair the biographer is absorbed in, is challenged by, believes in, and is amorous about. These ambit facilitate the arete from arduous “chore” in adjustment to acquire a brand to absorption of his affection or, to a degree, from banal autograph mechanics to affecting expression. The above is a coast. The closing is a drive. On the added hand, limitations of your own ability apropos assertive fields, such as abstruse ones, and antecedent actual will decidedly attenuated the ambit and superior of your work, and may be above your adequacy to address or even understand.

Here are 5 examples of apriorism topics:

a). How do fats affect the animal physique and mind?

b). How abutting has altruism arise to creating bogus intelligence?

c). What are the best means to abate all-around warming?

d). How does a new acceptance law in Russia abbreviate orphans’ opportunities for happiness?

e). Is multitasking a advantageous or annihilative plan method?

2). Assess Antecedent Material: Afore you baddest a affair or thesis, you may aboriginal ambition to actuate the bulk and superior of actual with which you can prove your thesis. If little exists, you are not acceptable to aftermath a satisfactory paper. Sources, causeless to say, cover libraries, arise works, cyberbanking venues, documents, businesses, government agencies, subject-specific works, and experts in the accurate field. Cited sources acquire to be accustomed and listed in the work’s bibliography.

3). Accomplish your Apriorism Statement: Apriorism statements, which can be advised declarations of acceptance you acquire to ultimately abutment and prove through your sources, are the capacity of your paper. They should be declared immediately, such as in the aboriginal band or paragraph. They become the agent from which the arcane adventure begins and their affidavit becomes the destination.

As you research, assay your statement, advance your ideas, and abutment them, the account itself may be aesthetic or modified. You may ascertain that it is either too attenuated or too broad. It should be able and specific.

4). Create an Outline: Like a alley map, an outline enables you to both blueprint and chase your advance from agent or apriorism to destination or conclusion, accouterment direction. It can be either formal, with accomplish arrested by numbers, letters, headings, and subheadings, or informal, which may alone entail a bulleted list, but can cover some or all of the afterward sections.

a). Title page.

b). Abstract-a abrupt arbitrary of the paper.

c). Introduction.

d). Body, subdivided into arguments, credibility of proof, and sources to be cited.

e). Reference or bibliography.

f). Tables, figures, and appendix, if applicable.

5). Adapt your Notes: Addendum anatomy the raw abstracts that will ultimately be adapted into the physique of the work, whose final artefact will be abundantly added if they are placed in the adjustment of argument. If opposing angle abutment your thesis, they should be included. This agenda alignment footfall enables you to analyze, synthesize, sort, and abstract your calm information. All quoted actual acquire to arise in the adjustment in which the arguments are presented.

6). Address your Aboriginal Draft: Afterward your outline and application your organized addendum and sources, you are accessible to address your aboriginal draft.

7). Revise your Thesis: Revision is the action of afterlight and refining, ensuring that facts are correct, that account are acutely expressed, and that the argument logically flows and is consistently supported. In so doing, you may ask yourself the afterward questions.

a). Is my apriorism account abridged and clear?

b). Did I chase my outline? Did I absence anything?

c). Are my arguments presented in a analytic sequence?

d). Are all sources appropriately cited?

e). Acquire I accepted my apriorism with able acknowledging arguments?

f). Did I leave a faculty of achievement for my readers at the end of the paper?

8). Edit your Thesis: Revision is rewriting. Editing is proof-reading and blockage for errors, such as spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Article Sources:

Stott, Bill. “Write to the Point.” Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.

– 5ku.mp3adio4.site

Writing Magazine Articles


A affection commodity is a magazine’s capital adventure and usually discusses a adapted event, person, or place, alms ample advantage and detail. Whether creatively focused or of a contemporary nature, there are abundant types of them. This branch discusses the abounding aspects bare to ability them.


Article purposes can be bidding by the chat “PAST,” whose belletrist accord to “purpose,” “audience,” “setting,” and “type.”

1). Purpose: What is the purpose or end ambition of the article?

2). Audience: For whom is the commodity getting written-in added words, what are the interest, understanding, expertise, demographics, and ages of its brash readership? A abstruse article, for example, may be geared against engineers, while one apropos annual burying and pruning may be added adapted for associates of a garden club.

3). Scope/breadth: Online autograph accept scopes and breadths and the columnist should not beat them, or it will cover too abounding angles and become too accepted in nature.

4). Topic: Capacity run the artifice from attitude to health, construction, computers, biology, and sports.


Articles can absorb the afterward six elements.

1). Lead

2). Nut graph

3). Commodity body

4). Angle

5). Header

6). Conclusion


Essentially a hook, the advance serves to grab the reader’s absorption and advance or allurement him into the commodity or story. Like bait, it accept to abduction him and bear on its “unwritten contractual” promise. It can be a individual band or a individual paragraph, depending aloft the breadth of the commodity itself, and accept abounding forms, such as a arbitrary sentence, a question, an astute comment, or a amusing quip, as follows.

1). Arbitrary lead: The arbitrary advance incorporates the accepted 5 “w’s” and one “h” of journalism-that is, who, what, where, when, why, and how.

2). Citation lead: The citation advance should, if at all possible, be abrupt and concise, thresholding what is to chase in the article’s body.

3). Book lead: The book advance uses a anecdotal to call a abode and is a lot of adapted for online autograph whose settings or locations are important.

4). Anecdotal lead: The anecdotal advance generally incorporates elements of artistic nonfiction, such as apologue or allegorical speech.

5). Anecdotal lead: The anecdotal advance begins with a story.

6). Abstruse lead: The abstruse lead, as its appellation implies, consists of a absurdity or contradiction, such as “The world’s wealthiest humans are paradoxically the poorest.”


The nut blueprint is the aspect sandwiched amid the advance and the story’s capital body, summarizing what is to follow. It can be equated with the aisle the clairvoyant can apprehend to chase through the piece. Its breadth is proportional to the article’s length-that is, a individual book would answer for a 300- to 400-word article, while a branch would be added adapted for a affection one.

It justifies the adventure be apropos to readers why they should affliction about what is getting written. It provides the alteration from the advance and explains how and why it is affiliated to what is to follow. It may acquaint the clairvoyant why the adventure is timely. Finally, it generally includes acknowledging actual that emphasizes why the commodity is important.


As its appellation implies, the commodity body, for which the nut blueprint provides its foundation, is the longest area and includes the writer’s capital points, facts, discussions, and acknowledging quotes.


The bend is the article’s emphasis. Tantamount to it is abutment provided by research, able quotes, data, and analysis. Because a lot of capacity are too all-encompassing to be abundantly covered in a 1,000-word piece, angles abate their focus. An commodity about education, for example, would arete a feature book, but a adventure absorption on the academy apprentice citizenry of clandestine institutions in the northeast would absolute its scope.

“Most acceptable belief accept one ambition or purpose, and the bend of the adventure helps the biographer accomplish this goal,” according to Naweed Saleh in his book, “The Complete Guide to Commodity Writing: How to Write Successful Online autograph for Online and Print Markets” (Writers Digest Books, 2013, p. 193.) “From the beginning, a biographer transitions against an catastrophe that is consistently in sight. If a clairvoyant becomes absent and the affiance of this catastrophe is obfuscated, again the biographer has failed.”


Although not necessarily a binding commodity element, a attack can bisect belief into shorter, specifically-focused sections, abnormally best ones. Almost like affiliate titles, they admonish the clairvoyant of what will be discussed in the corresponding section. In the case of the apprenticeship article, for example, its headers may cover “The Academy Apprentice Population,” “Northeast Colleges,” “Private against Public Institutions,” “Freshmen Requirements,” and “Private School Tuition.”


“When readers sit with your piece, they’re basic a accord with it-even if it’s a abbreviate relationship,” according to Saleh (ibid, p. 133). “If they accept apprehend it to the end, again they’re accommodating to see this accord through and apprehend closure. Consequently, the acceptable biographer will abide to bear superior autograph all the way to the end of the piece.

“You may achieve your commodity by accretion (its) perspective… , searching against the future, revisiting the introduction, or inserting a accordant quotation.”


Although there are several types and lengths of articles, this area reviews the above ones.

1). Profiles: Profiles action portraits of the rich, famous, influential, and important. “Most acceptable profiles absorb a accurate mix of a person’s able life, pastimes, amusing life, and ancestors life,” according to Saleh (ibid, p. 138). “You can aswell use apologue or allegorical elements to assay a person’s able activity with claimed details.”

2). Account articles: Both advisory and entertaining, account online autograph accommodate admonition and advance suggestions to humans and their lives in abundant areas, such as health, occupation, finance, and recreation.

3). How-to articles: These advantageous pieces usually cover a advance or introduction, adapted materials, steps, tips, suggestions, illustrations, diagrams, photographs, and conclusions. Very practical, they ambit from how to administer for a authorization to how to rid your garden of weeds to how to lose three pounds per anniversary on a diet.

4). Biking articles: Biking online autograph can be subdivided into two types-service and first-person. The above abduction the aspect of a destination and action admonition and advice on applied biking aspects, such as transportation, accommodation, dining, and attractions. The latter, like a memoir, arise in the first-person (“I”) and crave that the biographer accomplished the cruise himself afore he can realistically address on his subject. As an empiric biking narrative, it enables the clairvoyant to “travel along” with the author, seeing things through his eyes, tasting the cuisine, and compassionate his feelings, perceptions, and interpretations of the destination, its people, culture, and topography. It usually necessitates note- and photograph-taking during the cruise and assay both afore and afterwards it. “I tucked myself into asphalt ancillary streets tourists would never adventure down and met the wisest locals tourists would never encounter” may be one archetype of a band from such a focus.

5). Reviews: Reviews appraise and appraise television shows, films, amphitheater performances, books, paintings, articles, food, wine, and restaurants, a part of abounding added activity aspects. They serve as influences, whether absolute or negative, either active business against or adverse t from a venue. Although they acutely articulation aloft the reviewer’s opinion, he should be brash an ascendancy or able in the accountable with adapted university degrees and application experience. An columnist could allotment his assessment on an Impressionist painting with his friend, for instance, but a annual would not be absorbed in publishing his commodity about it unless he has some blazon of amount in beheld arts and experience, like with the Museum of Modern Art.

6). Abbreviate online autograph and pieces: Typically alignment from 250 to 400 words, these online autograph are optimized for annual departments, sections, and newsletters, and can serve as thresholds to advertisement and associate with annual editors.


Because online autograph are based aloft actuality and appropriately crave cogent able support, assay becomes the foundation of them.

“Good writers absorb about 80 percent of their time accomplishing assay and 20 percent of their time in actuality writing… ,” according to Saleh (ibid, p. 86). “Margaret Guroff, appearance editor for American Association of Retired Persons Magazine, states, ‘The key to autograph agreeable appearance is accomplishing a ton of assay so that you accept the abstracts at your fingertips… so that you absolutely accept your accountable and are speaking from a abode of authority’.”

There are three types of assay data.

1). Primary: Primary assay sources abide of unfiltered, banausic aboriginal documents, such as statistics, speeches, transcripts, account articles, questionnaires and surveys, columnist releases, first-person accounts, and interviews either with eyewitnesses of an accident or experts in the field.

2). Secondary: Accessory assay sources can be brash those that are removed from the aboriginal abstracts by a individual step. They analyze, critique, summarize, and interpret, and can cover books, radio shows, television shows, internet features, files, bi-weekly and annual articles, account analyses, and blogs.

3). Tertiary: Tertiary sources cover biographies, citations, abstract guides, and library catalogues.

Ideally, the anchorman or commodity biographer should use a antithesis of primary and accessory sources, the closing of which entail primary antecedent re-interpretations, whose bend or accurateness depends aloft the analyst (or the biographer of them).


Integral to assay and actuality acquisition is the interview. Interviews can drag articles, add claimed touches, and accommodate animal admission to the contest or affairs covered.

The biographer can activate the action by authoritative a account of those he needs to interview, and they can cover associates of academics, clubs, associations, professionals, leaders, managers, and authors, a part of abounding others. Public relations departments can facilitate identification of and admission with key humans and columnist kits or releases can accommodate foundation information.

There are three account sources.

1). Participant: Participants accept or accept had absolute captivation or roles in the contest or issues discussed in the story.

2). Witness: Although assemblage are not anon involved, they accept empiric the humans or contest and can accordingly action observations, insights, feelings, and conclusions, based aloft their perspectives.

3). Experts: While experts may appropriately not accept had absolute involvement, their degrees, activity experience, and compassionate will abundantly advance an article’s credibility.

In the case of Long Island’s Hurricane Sandy, participants were those who absent homes or acreage or at atomic abiding accident to them, while assemblage were those who saw those damages, but may not necessarily accept incurred any of their own. Experts included those from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Red Cross, responders, and contractors.


Before the biographer attempts an interview, he should accompaniment his commodity type, who he represents (freelance or publication), the bend of his subject, and why he wishes to allege to the accurate getting or authority. Although interviews can be directed by the interviewee, the biographer should about accommodate antecedent administration by advertisement the account questions he wishes to pose. Tape or added agency of recording is awful desirable, back annihilation quoted can be afterwards proven, and the interviewee should be brash of this fact. Archetype from cyberbanking to accounting agency can action afterwards the fact, in the writer’s home or office.

There are four above account types.

1). In-person: Aside from accouterment a personal, one-on-one touch, it enables the columnist to beam the person’s mannerisms, behavior, environment, and lifestyle.

2). Telecommunications: Telecommunication applications, such as Skype, accommodate computer awning interface with one or added others on the added end.

3). Telephone: While a footfall removed from the in-person type, the blast account still allows the accuser to aberrate from his able questions and chase the tangents the chat sparks, consistent in spontaneous, free-flowing directions.

4). Email/standard mail: These methods are adamant and rote.

Because interviewees bethink what they say, but not necessarily how they say it, the writer’s or reporter’s archetype of the chat can yield two forms.

1). Verbatim: This is the exact transcription, including grammatical or syntax errors.

2). Bankrupt up: Pauses, “ah’s,” and assertive grammatical errors may be deleted or bankrupt up.


Because online autograph accept to be accurate by information, interviews, and quotes from acclaimed sources and humans who accept degrees and associate in their corresponding fields, and writers and reporters may not necessarily accept admission to them, internet-based portals can hotlink the two. Two above venues cover HARO and Profnet.

Article Sources:

DeSpain, JJ. “A Writer’s Guide to Getting Published in Magazines.” Putnam Valley, New York: Alatheia Publications, 2000.

Saleh, Naweed. “The Complete Guide to Commodity Writing: How to Write Successful Online autograph for Online and Print Markets.” Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer’s Digest Books, 2013.

– Electronic Business